LaTeX is the preferred document creation tool for scientists and mathematicians all over the globe.

How to Reference in Latex - using B...

How to Reference in Latex - using Bibliography with BibTeX

It is popular because it allows users to insert equations and mathematical formulas into documents with ease, and presents them with a neat and professional look.

There are many ways to work with *LaTeX equations and math*.

This guide will go through the various types of equations and formulas you can add to LaTeX.

Table of Contents

## LaTeX Equations and Math Modes

LaTeX offers two primary routes for typesetting math equations and formulas in your document. The first method is to add math to your document text by enclosing it between dollar signs, such as *$…..$*. The other method is to use a predefined math environment.

### Embedding Formulas in Document Text

As described above, you can embed formulas in your document text directly using “$” symbols.

For example *$f(x) = x^3$ *would produce the equation *f(x) = x** ^{3}* in the final document.

### Using Equation and Align Environments

The equation environment can be incredibly useful if you want to typeset single equations in your LaTeX document. For multiple equations, the aligned environment tends to be more helpful.

For example:

\documentclass{article}\usepackage{amsmath}\begin{document}\begin{equation*} 3 + 4 = 7 \end{equation*}\begin{equation*} 4 = 7 - 3\end{equation*}\begin{align*} 4 + 2 &= 6\\ 4 &= 8 - 4\end{align*}\end{document}

The “*&*” symbol in the align section of the above code helps align the equations *4 + 2 =6* and *4 = 8 – 4* so that their “=” signs are under one another.

The *3+4 = 7* and *4 = 7 -3* equations above are created using a simple equation environment. Therefore they won’t be aligned.

You should also note that you cannot put more than one equation between the *\begin{equation*} *and *\end{equation*}* commands mentioned above. Attempting to add multiple equations enclosed by these commands will result in an error. This isn’t an issue with the align section, as you can see two equations are fit between *\begin{align*} *and *\end{align*}*.

Note that the asterix “*” in the commands above aren’t necessary, and are only present to prevent the equations mentioned from being numbered.

## Adding Fractions and Integrals in LaTe

As mentioned earlier, LaTeX is popular with mathematicians and scientists because it allows you to insert most types of mathematical notation. This includes fractions, integrals, and much more.

Earlier we demonstrated how you can show “x” raised to the power 3 using the code *f(x) &= x^3\\*.

If you wanted to show the equation *g(x) = 1/y*, your code should follow the format of *g(x) &= \frac{1}{y}\\*.

If you wanted to show an integral of *(½)x* raised to the power 2 with limits *a *and *b*, the code would resemble *F(x) &= \int^a_b \frac{1}{2}x^2*

You can also combine different types of code to create complex formulas and expressions. For example: *\frac{1}{\sqrt{y}}*. You should remember to keep track of the closing braces *{}* for each of your expressions, as failing to do so will produce errors.

### Adding Binomials in LaTeX

Binomials are another useful LaTeX equations and math expression you can add to your documents. We can include both fractions and binomials in an expression using the following code:

documentclass{article}\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}\usepackage{amsmath}\begin{document}\[ \binom{m}{j} = \frac{m!}{j!(m-j)!}\]\end{document}

## Adding Matrices in LaTeX

You can also add matrices in addition to other Latex equations and math formulas. This is accomplished using the commands *\begin{matrix}* and *\end{matrix}*. For example:

\begin{matrix}2 & 0\\0 & 2\end{matrix}

The above code will produce a 2 x 2 matrix that is aligned thanks to the inclusion of the “*&*”.

### Matrices with Brackets in LaTeX

In some cases, you may need to add brackets around your matrices. This usually occurs when you have to include special statements. You should note that simply adding the symbols *[]* to your code won’t cause the brackets to scale as your matrix grows. For example:

[\begin{matrix}2 & 0\\0 & 0\end{matrix}]

The above code will produce a matrix where the bracket remains the same size as the digits and doesn’t extend to the top and bottom of the rows. To adjust the brackets to the correct size, you will need to use a special code modifier. We demonstrate this in the following example:

\left[\begin{matrix}1 & 0\\0 & 1\end{matrix}\right]

Note the addition of *\left* and *\right* before the brackets at the start and end of the expression. This technique can be used for brackets in many types of LaTeX equations and math, and isn’t just limited to matrices.

## Changing Bracket Size in LaTeX

It is also possible to adjust the size of different brackets in LaTeX. The code changing brackets from small to large are shown below:

- “(“ brackets:
*\big( \Big( \bigg( \Bigg(* - “]“ brackets:
*\big] \Big] \bigg] \Bigg]* - “{“ brackets:
*\big{ \Big{ \bigg{ \Bigg{* - “<” brackets:
*\big \langle \Big \langle \bigg \langle \Bigg \langle* - “>” brackets:
*\big \rangle \Big \rangle \bigg \rangle \Bigg \rangle*

## Final Thoughts

As you can see, LaTeX offers many ways to add and display mathematical expressions and formulas. You can insert some very complex equations into LaTeX by using a combination of the commands mentioned above. Just remember the correct and complete syntax for each expression or you may end up running into errors. So try adding some professional-looking equations and expressions into your next LaTeX document.

You can learn more about creating complex mathematical expressions with the help of this video

## Frequently Asked Questions

### Q1. What Is Math Mode in LaTeX?

Math Mode is a special operating mode that allows you to enter mathematical expressions easily. It is possible to enter math mode by enclosing your expression between the “$” symbol. Alternatively, you can enter math mode by enclosing your expression between the commands *\begin{equation} *and \end{equation}

### Q2. What Does $$ Do in LaTeX?

Enclosing your expression between “$$” activates math mode. This is useful for creating inline math equations with no labels.

### Q3. How Do You Write a Math Equation in LaTeX?

You can write math equations in a variety of different ways as long as you are using math mode. You can use the command *\frac* for fractions, *\binom *for binomials, and the commands *\begin{matrix}* and *\end{matrix}* for matrices.

**Further Reading**

**LaTex Tutorial**

- 27 Pros and Cons of Using LaTex for Scientific Writing
- 6 easy steps to create your first Latex document examples
- How to add circuit diagrams in Latex
- How to change Latex font and font size
- How to create a Latex table of contents
- How to create footnotes in LaTeX and how to refer to them, using the builtin commands
- How to create Glossaries in LaTeX
- How to create plots in Latex – codes and examples
- How to create symbols in LaTeX – commands for Latex greek alphabet
- How to create tables in LaTeX – rows, columns, pages and landscape tables
- How to drawing graphs in Latex – vector graphics with tikz
- How to highlight source code in LaTeX
- How to insert an image in LaTeX – Managing Latex figure and picture
- How to Itemize and Number List – Adding Latex Bullet Points
- How to make hyperlink in latex – Clickable links
- How to reference in Latex – 5 steps to bibliography with Bibtex
- How to use Latex Packages with examples
- How to use LaTeX paragraphs and sections
- LaTeX Installation Guide – Easy to follow steps to install LaTex

## FAQs

### How do you align text and equations in LaTeX? ›

The eqnarray environment lets you align equations so that, for example, all of the equals signs "=" line up. To do this, **put ampersand "&" signs around the text you want LaTeX to align**, e.g. Each equation can be labelled separately, just put the label command after the relevant equation.

**How do you align multiple lines of equations in LaTeX? ›**

In large equations or derivations which span multiple lines, we can use the **\begin{align} and \end{align} commands** to correctly display the aligned mathematics. Here we use the ampersand ( & ) command to ensure the equations always line up as desired.

**How do you center align an equation in LaTeX? ›**

The align environment in Latex specifies that you want centered equations, separated from the text. It is called align because it allows you to align the equations. You separate lines in the equations with a double backslash ( // ). **Insert an ampersand ( & ) in each line at the alignment point**.

**How do you align text equally? ›**

**How to Adjust Paragraph Alignment in Word**

- Click anywhere in a paragraph you want to align, or select multiple paragraphs.
- Click an alignment option in the Paragraph group. Shortcuts: To align left, press Ctrl + L. To align right, press Ctrl + R. To align center, press Ctrl + C. To justify, Ctrl + J.

**How do I center and align text in LaTeX? ›**

We center text or images using **\begin{center} and \end{center}**. Just put \begin{center} when you want to start centering, and \end{center} when you want to stop centering.

**How do you keep math in the same line in LaTeX? ›**

For regular inline math that you want to never break across the line boundary, you could use **\mbox{$...** **$}** .

**What is the difference between align and equation LaTeX? ›**

**The difference between "align" and "align*" is the same as between "equation" and "equation*"**: The starred versions don't automatically generate equation numbers. Use those versions, if you don't want equation numbers, or if you want to number equations manually. Equation numbering and labelling in align/align*.

**How do I align text right in LaTeX? ›**

Right. The environment **\begin{flushright}...** **\end{flushright}** does the opposite of flushleft , and the text will be aligned with the right-hand margin, and have a ragged left-hand edge. If you are already in an environment you can switch this style of alignment on in a different way using \raggedleft .

**How do you align a figure in LaTeX? ›**

**How to do it...**

- Load the graphicx package. ...
- In your document, use the \raisebox command, together with half of the \height command: ...
- Your images, in the demo case, black-filled rectangles, will be vertically centered aligned:

**How does align work in LaTeX? ›**

The align environment provided by AMS-LaTeX is used for two or more equations when vertical alignment is desired; usually equal signs are aligned. **Use ampersands (&) for alignment and a double backslash (\\) to insert a linebreak**.

### How do you align equations to the left side in LaTeX? ›

To produce left-aligned formulas, **a column separator & must be put before the line break \\**; in other cases, the formulas will be aligned in the center as in the rest of the environments that we will show.

**What is the difference between center and centering in LaTeX? ›**

The difference between center and \centering is that **the latter just sets the paragraph parameters but the former is a list** (actually implemented via \trivlist ) as such, it gets the standard vertical spacing used by all LaTeX display environments such as verbatim or verse or quote , as well as theorems.

**What is the code to align text? ›**

// Syntax **text-align: start; text-align: end; text-align: left; text-align: right; text-align: center; text-align: justify;** If you want to align the entire text on your web page, you can apply this property to any tag containing the text, such as the div tag, heading, paragraph, or body tag.

**What are 3 different ways we can align text? ›**

**Alignment**

- Left-aligned text is text that is aligned with a left edge.
- Right-aligned text is text that is aligned with a right edge.
- Centered text is text that is centered between two edges.

**How do I align text inline? ›**

To set text alignment in HTML, **use the style attribute**. The style attribute specifies an inline style for an element. The attribute is used with the HTML <p> tag, with the CSS property text-align for the center, left and right alignment.

**How do I center align text in a text box? ›**

Right-click the text box for which you want to set vertical alignment. On the shortcut menu, click Format Text Box. In the Format Text Box dialog box, click the Text Box tab. In the Vertical alignment box, select Top, Middle, or Bottom.

**How does the center alignment to align text in a document? ›**

**Change text alignment**

- Place the insertion point anywhere in the paragraph, document, or table that you want to align.
- Do one of the following: To align the text left, press Ctrl+L. To align the text right, press Ctrl+R. To center the text, press Ctrl+E.

**What is \@ in LaTeX? ›**

For novices, a simple mnemonic rule is: \@ is **an invisible (zero-width) lowercase letter**. LaTeX considers a sequence <lowercase letter> <punctuation sign> <space> as end of a phrase and adds extra space for readability: in That's all. Thanks , LaTeX adds more space after all. .

**What does $$ mean in LaTeX? ›**

To type a single line expression in LaTeX, enclose it in **dollar signs**. For example, if we want to type 5x plus 3, we would type: $5x+3$ The dollar signs are key, as they distinguish a LaTeX math expression from regular text.

**What is inline math mode in LaTeX? ›**

inline math mode is **used to write formulas that are part of a paragraph**. display math mode is used to write expressions that are not part of a paragraph, and are therefore put on separate lines.

### How do you use the align function? ›

**To Align Two Objects in 2D**

- Type ALIGN in the command line and press Enter.
- Select the objects that you want to align.
- Specify a source point and then the corresponding destination point. To rotate the object, specify a second source point followed by a second destination point.
- Press Enter to end the command.

**What is the difference between align items and text align? ›**

while align-items would centre as a single line of text both horizontally and vertically inside a container , align-content would behave as if there were multiple lines of text,or a paragraph, and start from top aligning even a single line of text as if it were paragraph which has been given a text-align: center rule.

**How do I align selected text to the right? ›**

To make text right aligned, **select and highlight the text first, then hold down Ctrl (the control key) on the keyboard and then press R**.

**How do you align a figure? ›**

**Select Shape Format or Picture Format.** **Select Align**. If you don't see Align on the Shape Format tab, select Arrange, and then choose Align.

**How do I fix figure position in LaTeX? ›**

To definitely place a paragraph after a figure, **use the command \FloatBarrier somewhere between the figure and the paragraph**. It forces all figures defined before the command to render before that point in text. You will need to add \usepackage{placeins} in the preamble to use the command.

**How do you align paragraphs in LaTeX? ›**

Paragraph alignment

By default paragraphs in LaTeX are fully justified, i.e. **flush with both the left and right margins**. If you would like to typeset an unjustified paragraph you can use the flushleft or flushright environments.

**How does text align work? ›**

The text-align CSS property **sets the horizontal alignment of the inline-level content inside a block element or table-cell box**. This means it works like vertical-align but in the horizontal direction.

**How do I use better align? ›**

Usage. **Place your cursor at where you want your code to be aligned, and use shortcut alt + A or invoke the Align command via Command Palette**.

**Which command is used to align left? ›**

Left-aligned text is text that is aligned with a left edge. You can also left-align your text with the shortcut **Ctrl+L (Cmnd+L)**.

**How do you align left and justify? ›**

Text alignment is a paragraph formatting attribute that determines the appearance of the text in a whole paragraph. For example, **in a paragraph that is left-aligned (the most common alignment), text is aligned with the left margin.** **In a paragraph that is justified, text is aligned with both margins**.

### What are the three dots in the middle LaTeX? ›

Ellipsis in Mathematical Formulas

Recall that, in standard LaTeX, you have the commands \ldots and \cdots for printing ellipses points, either on the baseline or raised to the center of the line. **\vdots and \ddots are used to place three dots in a vertical and diagonal positions**, respectively.

**What is a centering technique? ›**

n. **a technique whose aim is to increase and focus attention and energy, to provide relief from stress and anxiety, or both**. Various practices (e.g., meditation, yoga) emphasize centering as a way of focusing attention on the process of breathing in order to slow it down or regularize it.

**What is the command used to align the table at the center in LaTeX? ›**

If you use the table-environment, you just have to set the command **\centering** to get the table centered.

**What are all the text align options? ›**

Value | Description | Demo |
---|---|---|

left | Aligns the text to the left | Demo ❯ |

right | Aligns the text to the right | Demo ❯ |

center | Centers the text | Demo ❯ |

justify | Stretches the lines so that each line has equal width (like in newspapers and magazines) | Demo ❯ |

**How many types of text align? ›**

There are four types of paragraph alignment available in Microsoft Word — left-aligned, center-aligned, rightaligned, and justified.

**What is the default text align? ›**

The default depends on the base text direction. For left to right text, the default is align=left , while for right to left text, the default is align=right .

**How do you write LaTeX equations in Word? ›**

To insert an equation using the keyboard, **press ALT+ =, and then type the equation**. You can insert equation symbols outside a math region by using Math AutoCorrect. For more information, see Use Math AutoCorrect rules outside of math regions check box.

**How do you write in LaTeX format? ›**

Writing text in a LaTeX document is easy. **Once you are inside the body of the document, as described in the Document Structure section of this page, all you have to do is start typing**. When you compile the code LaTeX will take care of all the text formatting based on any commands and packages used.

**How do you write text after an equation in LaTeX? ›**

If you want to put text inside math mode, you can use **\text{your text here}**. If that doesn't work, add \usepackage{amsmath} before the line \begin{document}, or use \textrm{your text here}.

**How do you left align text in an equation in LaTeX? ›**

- Use fleqn as an option in the document class. ...
- This will left align all the equation in the article.
- But if you want to left align some specific equation, then you can use amsmath package at the preamable and use environment flalign to align the equation to the left.

### How do you write math in text in LaTeX? ›

There are a few ways to enter math mode, however the most common is **$....** **$**, where the text within the dollar signs is in the math mode environment. You have already been using math mode unknowingly by using the \begin{equation} and \end{equation} commands.

**How do you add text to an equation? ›**

We often hear that you want to make data easier to understand by including text in your formulas, such as "2,347 units sold." To include text in your functions and formulas, **surround the text with double quotes ("")**.

**How to format long equations in LaTeX? ›**

Displaying long equations

For equations longer than a line **use the multline environment**. Insert a double backslash to set a point for the equation to be broken. The first part will be aligned to the left and the second part will be displayed in the next line and aligned to the right.

**How do I align a figure to the left in LaTeX? ›**

For general text you can use **\raggedright and \raggedleft** to align the material to the left and right, respectively. To align images inside a figure easily you can use the adjustbox package which allows you to add alignment keys to \includegraphics .

**How do I align text to the left? ›**

**Align text left, center, or right**

- Click anywhere in the paragraph that you want to align.
- On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, do one of the following:

**What is the command for align text right? ›**

To align the text left, press Ctrl+L. To align the text right, press **Ctrl+R**. To center the text, press Ctrl+E.